Monument very near to Piazza del Gesù Luxury Suites
The Pantheon ("Temple of all the gods") is a building of ancient Rome, built as a temple dedicated to the gods of Olympus. The inhabitants of Rome call it a friendly Rotonna or Ritonna ("La Rotonda"), from which the name of the square. Was made to reconstruct the Emperor Hadrian between 118 and 128 AD, after the fire, 80 and 110 AD had damaged the previous construction of the Augustan age.
At the beginning of the seventh century, the Pantheon was converted into a Christian basilica called Santa Maria della Rotonda, or Santa Maria to Martyrs, which allowed him to survive almost intact to pillage made to the buildings of classical Rome by the popes.
The point at which it stands is not accidental but is a legendary place in the history of the city. According to Roman legend, in fact, this was the place where the founder of Rome, Romulus, his death was seized by an eagle and taken to heaven among the gods.
The first Pantheon was built in 27-25 BC by Vipsanio Agrippa, friend and son of Augustus, in the context of the monuments in the Campus Martius, and entrusted the construction to Lucius Cocceius Aucto. In fact, it rose among Saepta Iulia and the Basilica of Neptune, blasted at the expense of the same Agrippa.
The original inscription of dedication of the building shown on the subsequent reconstruction of the Hadrian era, states: AGRIPPA • M • L • F • COS • • TERTIVM FECIT "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, consul for the third time, built" and the third consulship of Agrippa was precisely the year 27 BC However Cassius Dio Cocceiano the lists with the Basilica of Neptune and the Gymnasium Laconiano among the works of Agrippa ended in 25 BC.
From the remains found at approximately 2.50 meters below the building at the end of the nineteenth century, we know that this first temple was rectangular (43.76 meters x19, 82) with cell arranged transverse, wider than long ( as the Temple of Concord in the Roman Forum and the small temple on the Capitol Veiovis), built in travertine blocks covered with marble slabs. The building was facing south, in the direction opposite to the reconstruction of Hadrian, preceded by a portico on the long side which measured 21.26 meters in width. Before it was an open area circular, a sort of square that separated the temple from the Basilica of Neptune, enclosed by a low wall in opus reticulatum and floor slabs of travertine. Above these plates were then laid it other than marble, perhaps during the restoration of Domitian.
The building of Agrippa had, however, the central axis of the building coincided with the most recent and the width of the cell was equal to the inner diameter of the round. The entire depth of the building Augustan also coincides with the depth of the pronaos Hadrianic. From the sources we know that the capitals were made of bronze and the decoration consisted of caryatids statues and pediments. The temple faced onto a square (now occupied by Hadrian round) limited on the side opposite the Basilica of Neptune.
Cocceiano Cassius Dio states that the "Pantheon" was the name perhaps because housed the statues of many gods, or more likely because the dome of the building drew the sky (and the seven planetary gods), and that the intention of Agrippa had been to create a place of dynastic cult, dedicated to the patron of the Gens Iulia (Mars and Venus), and where he was a statue of Augustus, from which the building would have derived its name. Having the emperor opposed to both, Agrippa put inside a statue of the Divine Julius, (ie deified Caesar), and outside in the porch, one of Octavian and of itself, in celebration of their friendship and his zeal for the public good. The building was decorated by neoattico Diogenes of Athens [Domitian in 80 AD, rebuilt after a fire, thirty years later struck by lightning again took fire. It was then rebuilt in its present form by the Emperor Hadrian, under whose reign the Roman Empire reached the peak of its glory, and it is likely that the current structure is the result of his own genius eclectic tastes exotic. In fact, the Pantheon combines a cylindrical structure, clearly influenced by the Roman Empire, the beautiful exterior colonnade of Greek inspiration.